A Preliminary Study on Factors Influences the Design of Soccer Shoes Among Malaysian Soccer Players
Keywords:Soccer Shoes, Anatomy, Anthropometry, Biomechanics, Design
Soccer is a contact sport, so a soccer shoe's design is important because it affects the kick's accuracy, speed, and ability to avoid foot injuries. A research study with an appropriate experimental design and precise execution is necessary to produce high-quality results. A pilot study can be conducted as an external pilot study apart from the main study or as an internal pilot study integrated into the main study's research plan. This paper will review the research conducted from a pilot project to identify the design factors such as anatomy, anthropometry, biomechanics and physical characteristics for a soccer shoe popular amongst Malaysian soccer players. The objectives of this research are to determine the accuracy of the questionnaire items. The initial sample consisted of 50 Men soccer players from Peninsular Malaysian states are randomly selected from various levels of the game and have at least one year of playing experience. This study used the quantitative method, whereby questionnaires were applied to obtain information from respondents and findings were analyzed using SPSS software version 23.0 to calculate the Cronbach's Alpha reliability index. The validation of the instrument involves a total of two expert panels. A total of 84-item survey is divided into 4 sections, covering the demographic information of the respondents, their professional backgrounds, their opinions on soccer shoes, and their perceptions on shoe design elements. This study has shown that 81 items were appropriate to be utilized to measure the selection of soccer shoes design. Overall, these results indicate that the analysis has statistically proved that the items in this instrument has a high degree of validity and reliability and can be used for study’s actual sample. The high value of the alpha coefficients suggest that the instruments is very reliable and capable of determining the accuracy of the questionnaire items.
Farhan A.F., Stephany M. J. & Mahammed S. K. (2017). Prevention of Soccer-Related Ankle Injuries in Youth Amateur Players: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Movement, Health & Exercise, 6(1), 39-45.
Blanchard S., Palestri J., Guer J.L. & BEHR M. (2018). Current Soccer Footwear, Its Role in Injuries and Potential for Improvement. Sports Medicine International Open 2018; 2: 52–61.
Weizman Y. & Fuss F. K. (2015). Sensor Array Design and Development of Smart Sensing System for Kick Force Visualization in Soccer. The International Design Technology Conference, DesTech2015. Procedia Technology 20, 138–143
Saluta, Jonathan, and Nunley J. A. (2010). Managing foot and ankle injuries in athletes: quick return to sports activity without disability is the challenge. The Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine, 27(8), 355
Conenello R. M. (2010). Athletic Footwear and Orthoses in Sports Medicine. I. New York: Springer. Soccer, 239–246
Kashuk K. B., Savard M., and Smith T. (2010). Football. in M. B. Werd & E. L. Knight (Eds.), Athletic Footwear and Orthoses in Sports Medicine, 225–237
Daack C. W., & Senchina D. S. (2014). A Field Study of Low-Top vs. Mid-Top vs. High-Top American Football Cleats. Sports, 2(4), 85–98
Hennig E. M. (2014). Plantar pressure measurements for the evaluation of shoe comfort, overuse injuries and performance in soccer. Footwear Science, 6(2), 119–127
Hennig E. M. and Sterzing T. (2010). The influence of soccer shoe design on playing performance: a series of biomechanical studies. Footwear Science, 2, 3 – 11.
Kinchington M., Ball K.A. and Naughton G. (2012). Relation between lower limb comfort and performance in elite footballers. journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine 13(1), 27-34
Wei F. and Meyer E. G. (2013). Footwear properties and football injuries. Lower Extremity Review, 5(2)
Arnold DM, Burns KE, Adhikari NK, Kho ME, Meade MO, Cook DJ. The design and interpretation of pilot trials in clinical research in critical care. Crit Care Med 2009; 37(1 Suppl): S69-74.
Thabane L, Ma J, Chu R, Cheng J, Ismaila A, Rios LP, et al. A tutorial on pilot studies: the what, why and how. BMC Med Res Methodol 2010; 10: 1.
Benger J, Coates D, Davies S, Greenwood R, Nolan J, Rhys M, et al. Randomised comparison of the effectiveness of the laryngeal mask airway supreme, i-gel and current practice in the initial airway management of out of hospital cardiac arrest: a feasibility study. Br J Anaesth. 2016; 116:262–268.
Junyong I. (2017). Introduction of a pilot study. Korean J Anesthesiol 70(6): 601-605
Lancaster GA, Dodd S, Williamson PR. Design and analysis of pilot studies: recommendations for good practice. J Eval Clin Pract 2004; 10: 307-12.
Leon AC, Davis LL, Kraemer HC. The role and interpretation of pilot studies in clinical research. J Psychiatr Res 2011; 45: 626-9.
Roopa S, Rani MS. Questionnaire Designing for a Survey. J Ind Orthod Soc 2012;46(4):273-277
Van S. M. and Jankowski N. (2006). Conducting online surveys. Qual Quant. 40(3), 435-456.
Van T. E. and Hundley V (2002). The importance of pilot studies. Nurs Stand. 16(40), 33-36
Lumsden J. (2007). Online-questionnaire design guidelines: Handbook of research on electronic surveys and measurements. London: Idea Group Reference, 44-64
Fraenkel J. R. and Wallen N. E. (2009). “How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education” (7th ed. New York. McGraw-hill
Chua. Y. P. (2006). Kaedah dan statistik penyelidikan Kaedah Penyelidikan. Mc Graw- Hill Education.
Pallant, J. (2020). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS. Routledge.
Davis L. L. (1992). Instrument review: Getting the most from a panel of experts. Applied Nursing Research 5, 194-197.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Mohd Firdaus Mahamad Ali, Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin, Muhammad Raja Mohammed Firhad Raja Azidin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.