Evaluation of the impact of untreated cassava mill effluent on the physicochemical properties of the soil in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.
Keywords:Cassava, Effluent, Physicochemical analysis, Polluted soil, Unpolluted soil
Samples of fresh cassava effluent, cassava effluent polluted soil and unpolluted soil were collected during the rainy season to evaluate the effect on the physicochemical characteristics of the soil in Aba, Abia State. The physical and chemical parameters of the untreated cassava mill effluent, untreated cassava mill effluent-polluted soil and unpolluted soil were determined using standard laboratory methods. It was observed that addition of cassava mill effluent to the soil resulted to changes in the physicochemical parameters. The cyanide content, conductivity, turbidity, moisture content, TDS, TSS, TS, total acidity, total alkalinity, total chloride, and magnesium were higher in the contaminated soil samples than the unpolluted soil. The values of pH, Total hardness, calcium hardness, phosphorus, organic carbon, COD and BOD of the contaminated soil samples were lower than those of the unpolluted soil due to high content of hydrogen cyanide present in the contaminated soil. The high cynogenic potential had been attributed to the high cyanogenic glucoside (linamarin and lotaustralin) contained in cassava. The pH range of the untreated cassava mill effluent and the untreated cassava mill effluent polluted soil were completely acidic while the unpolluted soil was neutral indicating that the effluent impacted acidic properties to the soil. Phosphorus buildup in the unpolluted soil can be caused by excessive use of inorganic fertilizer or use of composts and manures high in phosphorus. The effluent from cassava plant when discharged on soil causes physicochemical changes in the soil, which calls for serious concern if the soil will be used for agricultural and other purposes. Therefore, cassava mills must be owned and managed by individuals who have basic knowledge of environmental protection.
Dufour, D.L Effectiveness of cassava detoxification techniques used by indigenous peoples in Northwest Amazonia. Interciencia, vol. 14: pp. 86-91, 2009.
Okafor, P.N. Assessment of cyanide overload in cassava consuming populations of Nigeria and the cyanide content of some cassava based foods. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 3: pp. 358-361, 2004.
Burns, A., Gleadow, R., Cliff, J., Zacariaas, A. and Cavagnaro, T. Cassava: The drought, war and famine crop in a changing world. Sustainability, vol. 2, pp. 3572-3607, 2010.
(FOA), Food and Agricultural Organization. Cassava industrial revolution in Nigeria. Codex Alimentarius XII, Supplementary 4, Rome 2004.
Oyewole, O.B. Fermentation of cassava for ‘lafun’ and ‘fufu’ production in Nigeria. Food Laboratory News. vol. 7, issue (2): pp. 29-31. 2001.
Kobawila, S.C., Louembe, D., Keleke, S., Hounhouigan, J. and Gambe, C. Reduction of the cyanide content during fermentation of cassava roots and leaves to produced bikedi and ntobambodi, two food products from Congo. African journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4: pp689-696, 2005.
McMahon, J., White, W. and Sayre, R.T. Cyanogenesis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 46:pp731–741, 1995.
Cutler, A. and Conn, E. The biosynthesis of cyanogenic glycosides in Linum usitatissumum (Linen flax) in vitro. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 212: pp468–474, 1981.
Yemm, R. and Poulton, J. Isolation and characterization of mandelonitrile lyase from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina) seeds. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol.247: pp440–445, 1986.
Wajant, H. and Mundry, K-W. Hydroxynitrile lyase from Sorghum bicolor: a glycoprotein heterodimer. Plant Science, vol. 89: pp127–133, 1993.
Wajant, H., Riedel, D., Bent, S. and Mundry, K-W. Immunocytological localization of hydroxynitrile lyases from Sorghum bicolor L. and Linum usitatissimum L. Plant Science. Vol. 103: pp145–154, 1994.
White, W., McMahon, J. and Sayre, R.T. Regulation of cyanogenesis in cassava. Acta Horticulturae, vol. 375: pp 69–78, 1994.
White, W. and Sayre, R.T. The characterization of hydroxynitrile lyase for the production of safe food products from cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) In DL Gustine, HE Flores, eds, Phytochemicals and Health, Current Topics in Plant Physiology, American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, MD, vol. 15. pp 303–304, 1995.
Zheng, L. and Poulton, J.E. Temporal and spatial expression of amygdalin hydrolase and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase in black cherry seeds. Plant Physiology, vol. pp109:31–39, 1995.
[Hasslacher, M., Schall, M., Hayn, M., Griengl, H., , S. and Schwab, H. Molecular cloning of the full- length cDNA of (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Heveabrasiliensis. Journal of Biological Chemistry. vol. 271: pp5884–5891, 1996.
Wajant, H. and Pfizenmaier, K. Identification of potential active site residues in the hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta by site-directed mutagenesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271: pp 25830–25834, 1996.
Pearson, D. Laboratory technique in food analysis. Butterwort London and Boston, pp50-57, 1973.
Okezie, B.O. and Kosikowski. F.V. Cassava as food. Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 17: pp259-275, 1982.
Akintowa, A. and Tunwashe, O.L. Fata cyanide poisoning from cassava-based meals. Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol.11: pp47-49, 1992.
Hans, R. Measuring effects in humans of dietary cyanide exposure from cassava. Acta Horticulturae. Cassava safety. No 375, pp, 271-283, 1994.
Adeymo, O.K. Haematological and histopathological effects of cassava mill effluents in clarias gariepinus. African Journal of Biomedical Research, vol. 8, pp179-183, 2005.
ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific). Industrial pollution control Guidelines. V: Tapioca industry. United Nations, Bangkok. Thailand, pp17, 2002.
Nok, A.J. and Ikediobi, C.D. Purification and some properties of linamarase from cassava (Manihot esculenta). Journal of Food Biochemistry, vol.14, issue (6), pp447-489, 2000.
Spectro, C. (2001). About soil pH. http://soil.gsfc.nasa.gor/soilpH/plantpH.htm. Accessed March 12, 2022.
American publish health association (APHA). American water works association and water pollution control federation, standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 16th edition, pp.70-81, 2005.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Official Methods of Analysis 18th edition. Virginia, pp. 309-315, 2005.
Chopra, C. and Kanzar C. Analytical Agricultural Chemistry.4th Edition, Pretice Hall, Charles Mall Publishers Co., Upper Saddle River, pp121-125, 1998.
Okunade, D.A. and Adekalu, K.O. Characterization of cassava waste effluent contaminated soil in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. European International Journal of science and Technology,vol. 3, issue (4), pp246-276, 2014.
Obi, M.E. Soil Physics. A compendium of lectures. Nsukka. Attan to Publishers, Nsukka, Nigeria, pp28-40, 2000.
Akharayi, F.C. and Omoya, F.O. Physiochemical determination and sensory evaluation of wine produced from selected tropical fruits. Bioscience Biotechnology Research, vol. 3, pp21-28, 2005.
Patil. P.N., Sawant. D.V. and Deshmukh, R.N. Physicochemical Parameters for Testing of Water. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 3, issue (3), pp1194-1270, 2012.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Official Methods of Analysis 15th edition. Washington DC, pp. 38-46, 2000.
Nwakaudu, M.S., Kamen, F.L., Afube, G., and Nwakaudu, A.A., Ike, I.S. Impact of cassava processing effluent on Agricultural soil: A case study of Maize growth. Journal of emerging trends in Engineering and applied science. Vol. 3, issue (5), pp881-885, 2012.
Chinyere, G.C., Osuocha, K.U., Offor, C.E. and Ugbogu, A.E. Seasonal Impact of Cassava Mill Effluents (C M E) On Dumpsites Physicochemical Parameters and Selected Enzyme Activities in Isuikwuato Area, Abia State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, vol. 5, issue (3), pp1777-1795, 2016.
Izah S. C., Bassey S. E. and Ohimain E. I. Cyanide and Macro-Nutrients Content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biomass Cultured in Cassava Mill Effluents. International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 2, issue (4), pp176-180, 2017.
Tagliavini M., Hogue, E.J. and Neilson, G.H. Influence of phosphorus nutrition and root zone temperature on growth and mineral uptake of peach seedlings. Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol. 14, pp1267-1276, 2008.
Mc Michael, B.L. and Burke, J. J. Soil temperature and root growth. Horticulture Science, vol. 33, pp97-951, 1998.
Olorunfemi, D. I., Emoefe, E. O. and Okieimen, F. E. Effect of cassava processing effluent on seedling height, Biomass and chlorophyll content of some cereals. Resource Journal ofEnvironmental Science, vol. 2, issue (3), pp221-228, 2008.
Osakwe, S.A. Effect of cassava processing mill effluent on physical and chemical properties of soils in Abraka and Environs, Delta State, Nigeria. Chemistry and Materials Research, vol. 2, issue (7), pp27-31, 2012.
Odoabuchi, V.E., Ejiogu, C.C., Nwanya, E. and Azubuike, C. Effects of Cassava Mill Effluent on Physicochemical Properties of Garden Soil – Eziobodo, Imo State, Nigeria. Global Scientific Journal, vol. 8, issue (9), pp1647-1656, 2020.
Eze V. C. and Onyilide, D. M. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristics of Soil receiving Cassava Effluent in Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, vol. 3, issue (1), pp20-24, 2015.
Fuller, M.A., Fearnebough, W., Mitchel, D.I. and Trueman, I.C. Desert reclaimation using yellow river irrigation water in Nigeria. China Soil Use and Management, vol. 11, pp77-83, 1995.
Ayansina, A.D.V., Garuba, E.O. and Baba, J. Some Physico-Chemical Parameters and Major Microorganisms Isolated from Cassava Wastewater and a Receiving nearby Stream. International journal of current microbiology and applied sciences, vol. 4, issue (6), pp211-217, 2015.
Akubugwo, I.E., Ofoegbu, C.J. and Ukuoma, C.U. Physiochemical studies on Uburu salt lake. Ebonyi State Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. (7), pp3170- 3174, 2009.
Agbo, B. E., Ogar, A. V., Itah, A. Y., Brooks, A. A. and Akonjor, M. A. Assessment of the effects of cassava mill effluent on the soil and its microbiota in Biase local government area of Cross river state, Nigeria. World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, vol. 01, issue (02), pp034–044, 2019.
Omomowo, I.O., Omomowo, O.I., Adeeyo, A.O., Adebayo E.A. and Oladipo, E.K. Bacteriological Screening and Pathogenic Potential of Soil Receiving Cassava Mill Effluents. International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, vol. 3, issue (4), pp26-36, 2015.
Orji, J.O. and Ayogu, T.E. Effects of Cassava Mill Effluent on Physicochemical Characteristics and Bacterial Flora of Soil in Ezzamgbo Community Ebonyi State, Nigeria. World Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 15, issue (1), pp20-33, 2018.
Akani, N.P., Nmelo, S.A. and Ihemanandu, I.N. Effects of cassava processing effluents on the microbial population and physicochemical properties of loamy soil in Nigeria. Nigeria Society of Microbiology, pp200-210, 2006.
Nwaugo V.O., Etok C.A., Chima G.N. and Ogbonna C.E. Impact of cassava mill effluent (CME) on soil physiochemical and microbial community structure and functions. Nigerian journal of Microbiology, vol. 22, issue (1), pp1681-1688, 2008.
TTAC. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. The standard addition method revisited, vol. 89, pp21-33, 2017.
Jorgensen, K., Bak, S., Busk, P.K., Sorensen, C., Olsen, C.E. and Puonti-Kaerlas, B.L. Cassava plant with depleted cyanogenic glucoside content in leaves and tubers. Distribution of cyanogenic glucosides, their sites of synthesis and transport, and blockage of the biosynthesis by RNA interference technology. Plant Physiology, vol. 139, issue (1), pp363-374, 2005.
Padmaja, G. Cyanide detoxification in cassava fr food and feed users. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 35, issue (4), pp299-339, 1995.
Onabolu, A.O., Oluwole, S.O., Bokanga, M. and Rosling, H. Ecological variation of intake of cassava food and dietary cyanide load in Nigerian communities. Public Health Nutrition, vol. 4, issue (4), pp871-876, 2001.
Kamalu, B.P. The adverse effect of long term cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) Consumption. International Journal of Food Science Nutrition, vol. 46, issue (1), pp65-93, 1982.
Oluwole, O.S., Onabulu, A.O., Cotgreave, I.A., Rosling H, Persson, A. and Link, H. Incidence of endemic ataxia polyneuropathy and its relation to exposure to cyanide in a Nigerian community. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgon. Vol.74, issue (10), pp1417- 1422, 2003.
Provin, T.L. and Pitt, J.L. Phosphorus too much and plant may suffer. Texas A&M Agrilife extension. Publication can be found at Agrilife Book store.org, 2017.
Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R. Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils (3rd Ed.., upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 235-243, 2010.
Jung, G.B., Kim, W.I., Moon, K.K. and Ryu, I.S. “Fractionation and availability of heavy metals in paddy soils near abandoned mining areas (Korea)”. Journal Agriculture, vol. 19, issue (4), pp319-323, 2002.
Okoli, N. H., Oti, N. N., Ekpe, I. I. and Mbawuike, S. A. Long-Term Impact of Cassava Mill Effluent on Some Chemical and Biological Properties of Soils. Malaysian Journal of Soil Science, vol. 22, pp101-115, 2018.
Mumoz, M., Pena, L. and Halloroms, J.O. “Use of an industrial by product as a liming source”. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, vol. 78, issue (3-4), pp195-202, 1994.
Oviasogie, P.O. and E. Omoruyi. “Levels of heavy metals and physicochemical properties of soil in a foam manufacturing Industry”. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, vol. 32, issue (1), pp102-106, 2007.
Haider, K., Martin, J.P. and Fillip, Z. “Humus Biochemistry. In: E.A. Paul. and A.D. McLaren. (Eds)”. Soil Biochemistry, vol. 4, pp195-244, 1975.
Yun, O. “Simulating dynamic load of naturally occurring Total Organic Carbon (TOC) from watershed”. Water Research, vol. 37, pp823-832, 2003.
Lopez-Sanchez, J.F., Sahuqullo, A., Fielder, H.D., Rubio, R.., Rauret, G., Muntau, H., Marin, P., Valladon, B.M., Polve, M. and Monaco, A. Analytical Chemical Acta, vol. 342, pp91, 2006.
Obueh H.O. and Odesiri-Eruteyan, E. A study on the effects of cassava processing wastes on the soil environment of a local cassava mill. Journal of Pollution Effects and Control, vol. 4, issue (4), pp177-182, 2016.
Horsefall, M., Abia, A.A. and Spiff, A.I. Kinetics studies on the absorption of cadmium, copper and zinc ions from aqueous solutions by cassava tuber bark waste. Bioresource Technology, vol. 97, pp283-291, 2006.
Ademoroti, C.M.A. Standard method for water and effluent analysis. 1st ed Foludex Press Ltd Ibadan, pp66-89, 2006
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Rosemary Eberechukwu Okoye, Onuorah Samuel , Abba Oluchi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.